The average person needs seven to eight hours of sleep a night, which enables your brain to store memories, and your body to repair and grow muscle and tissue.
Lack of sleep causes irritability, lack of concentration and reduced language skills, and is also linked to a rise in depression and anxiety, and weight gain. Take our quiz to find out if you’re getting enough sleep.
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On average each sleep cycle lasts for 90-120 minutes, with usually five cycles in each night. Stage one of sleep is similar to the state of meditating, which lasts for five-ten minutes, and in this stage it’s easy to be woken up.
The second stage, light sleep, lasts for around 20 minutes, when your heart rate and temperature drop. Then you enter deep sleep in stages three and four for around 30 minutes, followed by REM sleep, which is when you dream and your brain stores memories; your brain is active and your heart rate and breathing speed up.
The REM cycles get longer throughout the night. Stages three and four are where it’s most difficult to wake up, and your body repairs and builds up energy for the next day.
You may find it hard to sleep in silence, as a sudden noise is more noticeable and likely to wake you up, or be bothered by the sound of traffic or a snoring partner.
White noise is of the same volume at all frequencies, whereas pink noise is louder in the lower frequencies – the same as in some natural sounds such as heartbeats and the sound of traffic. Sleeping with pink noise has been found to improve listeners’ memories the following day.
There are three types of apps that can help you with getting better sleep: apps to help you fall asleep, apps that keep you from waking up, and apps that track the length and quality of your sleep.
As some apps are designed for you to listen as you fall asleep, or to listen all night, you could invest in a pair of Sleepphones, which are more comfortable than lying on earbud-style headphones.
Calm is a soothing meditation app for iOS and Android. It offers a range of guided meditations to help you cope with stress and anxiety, along with a special selection of sleep stories to help you relax if meditation’s not your thing.
The stories are read by a host of celebrities including Stephen Fry and Joanna Lumley, so you can choose the voice most likely to help you nod off to sleep.
There’s a selection of meditation programmes to help you relax at bedtime and you can choose natural soundtracks to accompany your sessions, such as the sound of falling rain or the wind in the trees. Prices start from $4.99 (£3.70).
Pzizz – Sleep, nap, focus
The Pzizz sleep app for iOS and Android counts author JK Rowling among its fans. Pzizz claims to use psychoacoustic principles (the psychology of sound) to help you to unwind and fall asleep quickly.
The app plays you ‘dreamscapes’ – combinations of voiceovers, sound effects and music – to settle your busy mind and get you ready for sleep. The app costs $9.99 monthly (£7.47) or $99.99 (£74.72) for a year.
Sleep Genius is available for iOS and Android, and costs £4.89. Designed by four specialists in music, sleep and neuroscience, they recommend going to bed and waking up at the same time each day.
The app’s algorithms are designed to make your brain sleep longer and deeper, and fall asleep more quickly; it has four sleep programs.
The alarms are designed to gently wake you over a five-minute period. And it recommends having a daily 30-minute power nap, which is generally stage one and stage two of sleep, so you wake up feeling refreshed.
Sleep Well Hypnosis
Sleep Well Hypnosis (free on both Android and iOS) uses hypnosis techniques in combination with white noise and calming music.
Created by a certified hypnotherapist it recommends a daily 25-minute session, either during the day or at bedtime to help you fall asleep. You should feel the benefits within one to three weeks.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) is designed to help you with the mental aspects of not sleeping – a racing mind, worrying during the night, and frustration when you can’t sleep.
The Sleepio app is part of a programme that can help with problems falling asleep, waking during the night, or waking up too early. They also offer guidance for shift workers, parents and dealing with jet lag. It costs $300 a year, with an iOS app available but no Android at the moment.
The SHUTi programme also uses CBT-I techniques, and suggests you follow a 40-minute session once a week for six weeks, and complete a short daily sleep diary, and practise your new strategies.
It costs from $215 a year and currently works in a web browser only, with online diaries, integration with a Fitbit and interactive lessons.
Sleepo for Android is free, and has both white noise and pink noise in a library of relaxing sounds in four categories: rain, nature, city sounds, and meditation. You can also mix the sounds, and save your favourite combinations.
BrainWaves – Binaural Beats app
The BrainWaves – Binaural Beats app for Android has 10 preset sounds, including Concentrate and Creative. For night-time listening there’s a Sleep preset, in the Delta wave section.
It has to be used with headphones so you hear the different frequencies in each ear, and you can also select your own frequencies for left and right sides.
Sleep Cycle is a free app for both Android and iOS – it’s designed to run on your phone under your pillow as you sleep, and can detect snoring. It uses either your phone’s microphone or its accelerometer to track your movements if you keep your phone beside you, and will then analyse the data to report on your night’s sleep – including whether you were snoring!
It will also wake you gently when it detects your light sleep phase close to your alarm time, and has a choice of two snooze modes.
Dream Moods Dream Dictionary
After a great night’s sleep you may wake up during a REM stage of sleep and remember what you were dreaming of. The free Dream Moods Dream Dictionary app for Android and iOS has more than 5000 symbols you can search through to see what your dream could mean, as well as a password-protected diary section so you can record your dreams to look back on.
Podcasts to help you fall asleep
You can also listen to podcasts to help you nod off – we like these two…
If you find it relaxing to listen to a male voice whispering about nothing in particular, try Sleep Whispers. Each podcast is between 30 and 90 minutes long, and taps into the trend for ASMR (Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response) for relaxation.
Alternatively, the Sleep with me podcast is a series of long stories, each lasting around an hour, that are intended to be so boring that they’ll send you to sleep.
Photo by Alexandra Gorn, Tracey Hocking, and Frankie K. on Unsplash